Monday, 26 August 2013

aktiviti ketika cuti raya....  kursus gubahan bunga segar~


Friday, 22 February 2013

*also first time wearing the mpppu shirt*

hehehee.....hope we will sucess in our study...friends forever.. :)  
Hello there!

 ni la kuching kesayangan admin julie(kanan) , gundut (kiri) 
maklum lah semenjak si julie ni melahirkan 4 ekor anak....gundut selalu menemaninya tidur,jalan,menyusukan anak dan lain2...hurm...bahagia..heheheheh...sweet btul! lah anak2 julie...comel2 semua tapi admin belum beri nama...urmmm....x taw nk namakn apa....apa pun..ank2 julie ni sebiji cam gundut hahahaha.....harap ank2 kucing dapat membesar dengan baik dan sihat.....

sekarang ni admin tengah tunggu kucing parsi pulak yg melahirkan ada nt insyallah admin akan upload pic nya...hehehe je lah untuk hari ni....have a nice day semuaaa!! xoxo xD 

Thursday, 21 February 2013

10 causes of air pollution :D

Combustion Engine Exhaust

Cars, trucks, jet airplanes and other combustion engine vehicles cause air pollution. The exhaust from these contains carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide and gaseous oxide. This type of air pollution creates smog (as seen in Los Angeles) which causes respiratory health problems and holes in the ozone layer, which increases the exposure to the sun's harmful rays.


Factories, office buildings, homes and power-generating stations burn fossil fuels, which cause air pollution. The burning of oil and coal (fossil fuels) also contributes to smog. This air pollution destroys plants, damages buildings and creates oxidation on iron.


Petroleum refineries release hydrocarbons and various particulates that pollute the air.

Power Lines

Some power lines are not insulated and are high voltage. This creates air pollution.


Pesticides used to kill indoor and outdoor pests, insecticides used to kill insects and herbicides use to kill weeds all cause air pollution.

Radioactive Fallout

Radioactive fallout causes air pollution from the nuclear energy dispersed, which is a dust.

Fertilizer Dust

Dust from fertilizers used to help plants grow causes air pollution.

Indoor Air Pollution

Sick building syndrome (SBS) is the term used when there is indoor air pollution. This happens when there is not enough ventilation to disburse the toxic fumes from new carpet, paint and/or cleaning chemicals that are used indoors. Mold can also cause SBS.

Mining Operations

Mining causes air pollution by releasing a variety of particles.



Global Warming Effects and Causes: A Top 10 List

earth global warming
One of the biggest issues facing us right now is global warming. Its effects on animals and on agriculture are indeed frightening, and the effects on the human population are even scarier. The facts about global warming are often debated in politics and the media, but, unfortunately, even if we disagree about the causes, global warming effects are real, global, and measurable. The causes are mainly from us, the human race, and the effects on us will be severe.
–> Highly recommended: What is Causing Global Warming?
–> You may also like: Global Warming Videos (Best, Funniest, & Most Inspiring)

Global Warming Effects and Causes: A Top 10 List

global warming causes

1. Global Warming Cause: Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning power plants
Our ever increasing addiction to electricity from coal burning power plants releases enormous amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. 40% of U.S. CO2 emissions come from electricity production, and burning coal accounts for 93% of emissions from the electric utility industry [EPA, pg. 10]. Every day, more electric gadgets flood the market, and without widespread alternative energy sources, we are highly dependent on burning coal for our personal and commercial electrical supply.

global warming causes

2. Global Warming Cause: Carbon dioxide emissions from burning gasoline for transportation
Our modern car culture and appetite for globally sourced goods is responsible for about 33% of emissions in the U.S. [EPA pg. 8] With our population growing at an alarming rate, the demand for more cars and consumer goods means that we are increasing the use of fossil fuels for transportation and manufacturing. Our consumption is outpacing our discoveries of ways to mitigate the effects, with no end in sight to our massive consumer culture.

global warming causes

3. Global Warming Cause: Methane emissions from animals, agriculture such as rice paddies, and from Arctic seabeds
Methane is another extremely potent greenhouse gas, ranking right behind CO2. When organic matter is broken down by bacteria under oxygen-starved conditions (anaerobic decomposition) as in rice paddies, methane is produced. The process also takes place in the intestines of herbivorous animals, and with the increase in the amount of concentrated livestock production, the levels of methane released into the atmosphere is increasing. Another source of methane is methane clathrate, a compound containing large amounts of methane trapped in the crystal structure of ice. As methane escapes from the Arctic seabed, the rate of global warming will increase significantly.

global warming causes

4. Global Warming Cause: Deforestation, especially tropical forests for wood, pulp, and farmland
The use of forests for fuel (both wood and for charcoal) is one cause of deforestation, but in the first world, our appetite for wood and paper products, our consumption of livestock grazed on former forest land, and the use of tropical forest lands for commodities like palm oil plantations contributes to the mass deforestation of our world. Forests remove and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and this deforestation releases large amounts of carbon, as well as reducing the amount of carbon capture on the planet.

global warming causes

5. Global Warming Cause: Increase in usage of chemical fertilizers on croplands
In the last half of the 20th century, the use of chemical fertilizers (as opposed to the historical use of animal manure) has risen dramatically. The high rate of application of nitrogen-rich fertilizers has effects on the heat storage of cropland (nitrogen oxides have 300 times more heat-trapping capacity per unit of volume than carbon dioxide) and the run-off of excess fertilizers creates ‘dead-zones’ in our oceans. In addition to these effects, high nitrate levels in groundwater due to over-fertilization are cause for concern for human health.

global warming effects

6. Global Warming Effect: Rise in sea levels worldwide
Scientists predict an increase in sea levels worldwide due to the melting of two massive ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland, especially on the East coast of the U.S. However, many nations around the world will experience the effects of rising sea levels, which could displace millions of people. One nation, the Maldives, is already looking for a new home, thanks to rising sea levels.

global warming effects

7. Global Warming Effect: More killer storms
The severity of storms such as hurricanes and cyclones is increasing, and research published in Nature found:
“Scientists have come up with the firmest evidence so far that global warming will significantly increase the intensity of the most extreme storms worldwide. The maximum wind speeds of the strongest tropical cyclones have increased significantly since 1981, according to research published in Nature this week. And the upward trend, thought to be driven by rising ocean temperatures, is unlikely to stop at any time soon.”

global warming effects

8. Global Warming Effect: Massive crop failures
According to recent research, there is a 90% chance that 3 billion people worldwide will have to choose between moving their families to milder climes and going hungry due to climate change within 100 years.
“Climate change is expected to have the most severe impact on water supplies. “Shortages in future are likely to threaten food production, reduce sanitation, hinder economic development and damage ecosystems. It causes more violent swings between floods and droughts.”" – Guardian: Global warming causes 300,000 deaths a year

global warming effects
9. Global Warming Effect: Widespread extinction of species
According to research published in Nature, by 2050, rising temperatures could lead to the extinction of more than a million species. And because we can’t exist without a diverse population of species on Earth, this is scary news for humans.
“Climate change now represents at least as great a threat to the number of species surviving on Earth as habitat-destruction and modification.” Chris Thomas, conservation biologist at the University of Leeds
Widespread species loss and lists of endangered species just keep growing. This is a concerning matter on many fronts.
global warming effects

10. Global Warming Effect: Disappearance of coral reefs
A report on coral reefs from WWF says that in a worst case scenario, coral populations will collapse by 2100 due to increased temperatures and ocean acidification. The ‘bleaching’ of corals from small but prolonged rises in sea temperature is a severe danger for ocean ecosystems, and many other species in the oceans rely on coral reefs for their survival.
“Despite the oceans’s immensity — 71 per cent of the Earth’s surface with an average depth of almost 4km (2½m) — there are indications that it is approaching its tipping point. For reefs, warming waters and acidification are closing in like a pair of jaws that threaten to make them the first global ecosystem to disappear.” – Times Online: 21st-century Noah’s Ark needed to save coral reefs from extinction

Wednesday, 9 January 2013

all about sagu

kata Menteri Muda Pertanian (Ekonomi Rumah Tangga dan Latihan) Datin Fatimah Abdullah.
Beliau berkata, Sarawak me-rupakan pengeksport tepung sagu terbesar dunia dengan eksport tahunan sebanyak 25,000 hingga 50,000 tan metrik ke Semenanjung Malaysia, Jepun,Taiwan, Singa-pura dan lain-lain.
Permintaan tepung sagu di pasaran antarabangsa ujar beliau, sentiasa meningkat memandangkan ia mampu di-manfaatkan untuk pelbagai kegunaan
Jika dahulu, sagu hanya menjadi makanan tradisi kaum Melanau tetapi hari ini, ia boleh digunakan untuk pelbagai kegunaan lain termasuk per- ubatan,” katanya.
sepohon rumbia boleh menjangkau RM70.
Harga tepung sagu di pasa-ran antarabangsa pula kata-nya, juga semakin meningkat dengan RM140 satu tan metrik pada 1970 kepada RM1,239 bermula Mac 2008.
Menurutnya, keluasan kawasan Sarawak yang ditanam dengan rumbia ialah 67,957 hektar dan 43,426 hektar ditanam oleh pekebun kecil dan 24,531 hektar oleh estet.
“Dalat mempunyai 28,745 hektar luas kawasan kebun rumbia dan mempunyai empat kilang yang menghasilkan tepung sagu yang dieksport ke Semenanjung Malaysia, Jepun, Singapura, Taiwan,” katanya.
“Manakala, dari segi kegunaannya pula, ia boleh dijadi-kan makanan berasaskan sagu, produk bukan berbentuk ma-kanan seperti ‘adhesives polyester plastics,’ enzim, produk farmaseutikal dan kosmetik.
Melihat potensi sagu dalam bidang komersial, Kerajaan Negeri turut menyenaraikan produk industri desa itu dalam barisan produk ‘Sarawak Best.’
‘Sarawak Best’ yang wujud sejak September 2006 merupakan program untuk meningkatkan mutu produk industri desa.


Pengusaha Sagu Lemantak

Melihat kepada potensi makanan sagu yang boleh menghasilkan pendapatan yang baik, Pon Itam memberanikan diri  mencuba  menghasilkan lemantak secara serius sejak lebih lima tahun lalu.  Bermodalkan wang kira-kira RM300.00 pada tahun 2004, Pon Itam meneruskan tradisi keluarganya yang pakar menghasilkan sagu lemantak. Menceritakan pengalamannya , Pon memberitahu, untuk menghasilkan lima tin lemantak, beliau memerlukan lima kilogram tepung sagu yang dibeli dengan harga RM70.00.  Selain  itu, bahan-bahan utama lain yang diperlukan termasuklah 85 biji kelapa tua, dua kilogram hampas padi dan empat bungkus garam yang masing-masingnya seberat 150 gram.
Proses membuat sagu dimulakan dengan menjemur lebih separuh daripada jumlah kelapa tua yang telah diparut sehingga kering dan digoreng tanpa minyak hingga  garing. Seterusnya, kelapa kering itu dikisar di kedai berdekatan sehingga menjadi kerisik. Kemudian, 30 biji buah kelapa diparut untuk mendapatkan perahan santan pekat lalu dimasak hingga mendidih. Hampas padi yang telah dibeli daripada pembekal-pembekal tempatan  dengan harga RM3.00 sekilogram diayak berulang kali untuk mendapatkan tepung hampas yang sangat halus. Setelah semuanya disiapkan, kerisik dan air santan  dibawa ke rumah balanga (rumah khas yang dibina untuk membuat sagu) untuk proses seterusnya. Di rumah ini,  proses mengedoh akan dilakukan dengan mencampurkan  tepung lemantak, kerisik, tepung hampas  padi,  santan dan garam.
Kemudian, adunan doh tadi diayak di dalam gaah (alat khas yang dianyam menggunakan  daun pokok nipah) dan digelek menggunakan takung (acuan khas yang diperbuat daripada batang pokok buluh) lalu   dimasak di dalam belanga khas yang diperbuat daripada tanah liat.  Proses memasak dimulakan dengan memanas belaga tanah selama dua jam. Selepas itu, barulah sagu dimasukkan ke dalam bekas tersebut dan digoreng tanpa minyak selama setengah jam. Biasanya, kerja-kerja memasak dilakukan di dapur kayu yang telah dibuat khas dan selalunya untuk sekali masakan, Pon memerlukan lebih 25 batang kayu api yang dibeli  dengan harga RM0.50 sebatang. Sagu-sagu yang telah masak akan disejukkan terlebih dahulu sebelum dimasuk ke dalam tin yang telah disediakan.  Setiap satu tin boleh menempatkan 12 kilogram biji sagu dan dijual dengan harga RM60.00.  Sagu yang ditimbang seberat satu kilogram dimasukkan ke dalam beg plastik dan dijual dengan harga RM7.00 sekilogram.
Biasanya, sagu yang telah ditinkan akan dibeli oleh pemborong-pemborong sagu dari kawasan Mukah, Dalat, Oya dan Kuching yang datang ke rumah Pon.  Manakala sagu yang telah dimasukkan ke dalam plastik akan dibeli oleh penduduk tempatan.  Sekali jualan, anak tempatan Kampung Medong ini  mampu memperoleh keuntungan bersih sekitar RM150.00. Jika bekalan kelapa yang berharga RM0.10 sebiji dibekalkan kepadanya mencukupi, Pon boleh menghasilkan  10 tin  makanan sagu  dalam tempoh masa  seminggu.  (Kemas kini: 27 Ogos 2009 - Oleh: Noraini Mahyan)

Sagu Kampung Medong

Jenama Sagu Medong yang diusahakan oleh Masinah Paris dari Kampung Medong Dalat telah dipamerkan di Karnival Balau Dalat yang diadakan pada 3 Julai hingga 5 Julai 2009 lalu. Karnival yang diadakan di Stadium Perpaduan Dalat itu bertujuan mempromosikan produk yang dihasilkan  daripada pokok rumbia seperti bebola sagu, snek tebaloi serta hasil kraf tangan.
Setakat ini, hanya jenama Sagu Medong yang layak menerima  pengiktirafan 'Sarawak Best'. Produk tersebut diusahakan oleh Masinah Paris, wanita gigih yang berasal dari Kampung Medong, Dalat. Perusahaan sagu tersebut diwarisi oleh Masinah daripada keluarganya sejak zaman remaja lagi. Masinah pernah menghadiri beberapa kursus bagi meningkatkan lagi kualiti dan kuantiti produk yang beliau hasilkan.  Selain itu, galakan dan dorongan yang diperoleh menerusi kursus-kursus yang dihadiri telah memberi semangat kepada beliau untuk bersaing dengan pelbagai keluaran lain di pasaran.
Sagu yang dihasilkan oleh Masinah terkenal dengan keunikan rasa yang tersendiri hasil daripada resipi istimewa ciptaan keluarganya sejak turun-temurun. Keistimewaan resipi tersebut telah menarik minat   Jabatan Pertanian Negeri Sarawak untuk membina sebuah pusat pemprosesan sagu di Kampung Medong. Pusat pemprosesan yang menelan belanja sebanyak RM75,000 itu telah dibuka secara rasmi oleh Menteri Muda di Pejabat Ketua Menteri Sarawak, Datin Fatimah Abdullah, pada 5 Julai 2009 lalu. (Kemas kini: 15 Julai 2009 - Oleh: Siti Hazilah)

Sagu Terbaik Sarawak

Bidang keusahawanan belum lagi berkembang  pesat di kampung ini. Namun begitu perniagaan membuat sagu dilakukan dengan giatnya di kampung ini oleh penduduk kampung ini. Sagu akan dijual di seluruh bahagian Mukah dan kadang-kadang mendapat tempahan dari luar.   Bahan-bahan yang digunakan untuk membuat sagu ialah kelapa, kacang dan hampas padi. Terdapat beberapa jenis sagu yang dihasilkan oleh penduduk di sini seperti sagu kelapa, sagu kasam dan sagu bubur.
Sambutan pelanggan terhadap sagu dari Kampung Medong sangat menggalakkan kerana mempunyai rasa yang berbeza daripada sagu di tempat lain. Hasil yang diperoleh daripada jualan sagu ini biasanya bergantung kepada permintaan pelanggan.sumber=